Regulators of the Financial System
Bangladesh Bank acts as the Central Bank of Bangladesh which was established on December 16, 1971 through the enactment of Bangladesh Bank Order 1972- President’s Order No. 127 of 1972 (Amended in 2003). The general superintendence and direction of the affairs and business of BB have been entrusted to a 9 members' Board of Directors which is headed by the Governor who is the Chief Executive Officer of this institution as well. BB has 40 departments and 9 branch offices. In Strategic Plan (2010-2014), the vision of BB has been stated as, “To develop continually as a forward looking central bank with competent and committed professionals of high ethical standards, conducting monetary management and financial sector supervision to maintain price stability and financial system robustness, supporting rapid broad based inclusive economic growth, employment generation and poverty eradication in Bangladesh”. The main functions of BB are (Section 7A of BB Order, 1972) - To formulate and implement monetary policy;
To formulate and implement intervention policies in the foreign exchange market; To give advice to the government on the interaction of monetary policy with fiscal and exchange rate policy, on the impact of various policy measures on the economy and to propose legislative measures it considers necessary or appropriate to attain its objectives and perform its functions; To hold and manage the official foreign reserves of bangladesh; To promote, regulate and ensure a secure and efficient payment system, including the issue of bank notes; To regulate and supervise banking companies and financial institutions. Core Policies of Central Bank
The main objectives of monetary policy of Bangladesh Bank are: Price stability both internal & external
Sustainable growth & development
Economic and efficient use of resources
Stability of financial & payment system
Bangladesh Bank declares the monetary policy by issuing Monetary Policy Statement (MPS) twice (January and July) in a year. The tools and instruments for implementation of monetary policy in Bangladesh are Bank Rate, Open Market Operations (OMO), Repurchase agreements (Repo) & Reverse Repo, Statutory Reserve Requirements (SLR & CRR).
Reserve Management Strategy
Bangladesh Bank maintains the foreign exchange reserve of the country in different currencies to minimize the risk emerging from widespread fluctuation in exchange rate of major currencies and very irregular movement in interest rates in the global money market. BB has established Nostro account arrangements with different Central Banks. Funds accumulated in these accounts are invested in Treasury bills, repos and other government papers in the respective currencies. It also makes investment in the form of short term deposits with different high rated and reputed commercial banks and purchase of high rated sovereign/supranational/corporate bonds. A separate department of BB performs the operational functions regarding investment which is guided by investment policy set by the BB's Investment Committee headed by a Deputy Governor. The underlying principle of the investment policy is to ensure the optimum return on investment with minimum market risk. Interest Rate Policy
Under the Financial sector reform program, a flexible interest policy was formulated. According to that, banks are free to charge/fix their deposit (Bank /Financial Institutes) and Lending (Bank /Financial Institutes) rates other than Export Credit. At present, except Pre-shipment export credit and agricultural lending, there is no interest rate cap on lending for banks. Yet, banks can differentiate interest rate up to 3% considering comparative risk elements involved among borrowers in same lending category. With progressive deregulation of interest rates, banks have been advised to announce the mid-rate of the limit (if any) for different sectors and the...
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