The Phenomenological Method
Philosophy started among the Greeks who asked practical questions in life such as “how to live?” But then started as well asking impractical questions like “Is it just?” What is just is that which is not only ok with me but with others as well. Here the issue of universality is first raised. “What is justice?” is one of the first philosophical questions of man. The next philosophical question is on truth. What is true is that which is not only valid here and now but in anytime and place. These questions are impractical in the sense that it has no use though it is nonetheless important. Ancient philosophy is grounded on Being or Logos, which is something objective and not according to one’s own ideas alone. Truth and justice are eventually grounded on being. Here marks the beginning of western philosophy. Ontology or metaphysics comes from the Greek term ontos which means being, thus it is the study of being as being Aristotle talks of four levels of beings:
Man – being capable of laughter and language (henceforth rational) Animals – capable of sense consciousness
Plants – capable of nutrition, growth and reproduction.
Minerals – pertaining to water, fire, air and earth
Aristotle makes philosophy concrete. He explains that all beings are composed of two elements which are – matter and form. Things vary according to their degree of organization as determined by their respective forms. St. Thomas Aquinas in the medieval age affirms Aristotle’s categorization of beings but adds that without existence which is that which every being shares, they are nothing at all. The existence of things then will lead man to the knowledge of the source of all things which is, God. God is pure existence. God according to Aquinas is both the efficient cause of man, in as much as God created man and the final end of man in as much as he must return to God as the source of his existence. With the coming of experimental science, scientists objected...
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