Pe Year 11 Assignment

Topics: Muscle contraction, Muscle, Muscular system Pages: 5 (1888 words) Published: January 31, 2013
Assessment Task 4
1. Discus is a complex sport that requires skill and a lot of training. The discus is held in the dominant hand putting the first knuckles of your fingers around the edge. Your hand must be spread wide but not strained. You must orient your wrist so your index finger is directly in line with your forearm. You must then align yourself with the target area, either at your left shoulder or behind you. Most professionals face away from the target, which requires another 90 degrees of spin and can be a more difficult manoeuvre but optimizes throwing speed on a properly executed throw. Just before your right leg is planted, your left leg should rise off the ground with the momentum of your spin. As your right leg plants, your left leg should move low and fast around your body to plant in line with the right leg at the front of the circle. The left leg plants firmly and the entire momentum of the body is directed into the extended right arm. The hips drive through the rotation to face the target while the shoulders and arm trail behind and then snap through. The discus is released off the front of the fingers, rolling off the index finger, which imparts clockwise spin. The skeletal system has a major contribution as it provides the movement during the discus throw. The phalanges and metatarsals are used to allow the movement in the feet when spinning and swivelling. The feet play a very significant role throughout the entire preparation and throw. The tarsals in the ankles are gliding joints which allow for the ankles to create the joint action of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion when the individual turns their body in preparation for the throw. During the discus throw, the athlete lifts one foot in a plantar flexion whilst the other foot stays in the dorsiflexion position. During the whole throw, the legs are constantly flexed and extension is not made until the discus has been released and the athlete is not longer in motion. The vertebral column, consisting of the cervical vertebrae, thoracic curvature and the lumbar curvature, allows movement in the trunk. When the individual spins, the vertebral allows the trunk to rotate from side to side. Included in the trunk is the sternum and the rib cage. The patella is a condyloid joint is in a bent while the tibia, fibula and femur are all flexing as rotation is taking place. The pelvis which is a ball and socket joint allows flexion in the legs. The phalanges and the metacarpals flex as the discus is gripped. The carpals in the wrist are gliding joints, which rotate and flex as the arm swings back and forth across the body in order to keep a solid grip on the discus. The fingers extend when releasing the discus in order to get distance. The elbow, which is a hinge joint, allows bending when coming back across the body after hyperextension behind the body. It is then in a pronation position when extended forward. The muscular system also plays a major role in throwing a discus. The entire muscular system is required to enable to discus throw. The tibialis anterior, located near the tibia, allows the feet to produce the action of dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion. For the knee to be able to flex, the gastrocnemius and the hamstrings perform a concentric movement whilst the quadriceps and tibialis anterior create the eccentric movement because they lengthen. The erector spinae allows for the back to extend when the individual swings their arms back and forth around their body in preparation of releasing the discus. This allows for the muscle length to increase so that muscle is completing an eccentric contraction. Because the body is moving from side to side, the external obliques flex as the trunk rotates. Whilst the athlete is moving to the left, the left hand side obliques shorten, performing the concentric muscle contraction. At the same time the right external oblique is lengthening. This is constantly swapping as the...
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