Md. Abdullah Nabil
Food poisoning, also called food-borne illness, is illness
caused by eating contaminated food. Infectious organismsincluding various bacteria, viruses and parasites or their toxins are the most common causes of food poisoning.
Food poisoning symptoms vary with the source of contamination. Most types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:
Abdominal pain and cramps
Signs and symptoms may start within hours after eating the
contaminated food, or they may begin days or possibly even weeks later. Sickness caused by food poisoning generally lasts from one to 10 days.
When to see a doctor
If you experience any of the following signs or symptoms,
seek medical attention.
• Frequent episodes of vomiting that interfere with your
ability to keep liquids down
• Vomiting blood
• Severe diarrhea for more than three days
• Blood in your bowel movements
• Extreme pain or severe abdominal cramping
• An oral temperature higher than 101.5 F (38.6 C)
• Signs or symptoms of dehydration — excessive thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, severe weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness
Muscle weakness that progresses downward
• Contamination of food can happen at any point
production: growing, harvesting, processing, storing,
shipping or preparing.
• Cross-contamination — the transfer of harmful
organisms from one surface to another — is often the
• Many bacterial, viral or parasitic agents cause food
• This is especially troublesome for raw, ready-to-eat
foods, such as salads or other produce.
• Older adults. As you get older, your immune system may not respond as quickly and as effectively to infectious organisms as when you were younger.
• Pregnant women. During pregnancy, changes in metabolism and circulation may increase the risk of food poisoning. Your reaction may be more severe during pregnancy. Rarely, your baby may get sick, too. • Infants and young children. Their immune systems haven't fully developed.
• People with chronic disease. Having a chronic condition — such as diabetes, liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response.
Tests and diagnos
Food poisoning is often diagnosed based on a detailed history, including how long you've been sick, characteristics of your symptoms and specific foods you've eaten. Your doctor will
also perform a physical exam, looking for signs of
Depending on your symptoms and health history, your doctor
may conduct diagnostic tests, such as a blood test, stool
culture or examination for parasites, to identify the cause and confirm the diagnosis. For a stool culture, your doctor will ask for a stool sample and send it to a laboratory, where a
technician will try to grow and identify the infectious
organism. In some cases, the cause of the food poisoning
cannot be identified.
Treatments and drugs
Treatment of food poisoning may include:
• Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes —
minerals such as sodium, potassium and calcium that
maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to
persistent diarrhea need to be replaced. Children and
adults who are severely dehydrated need treatment in a
hospital, where they can receive salts and fluids through a
vein (intravenously), rather than by mouth.
• Antibiotics. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics if you have certain kinds of bacterial food poisoning and your
symptoms are severe.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Food poisoning often improves on its own within 48 hours. To help keep yourself more comfortable and prevent dehydration
while you recover, try the following:
• Let your stomach settle. Stop eating...
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