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There are three main schools of thought notable in philosophy. These are pragmatic, continental, and analytic. Each of these schools has differences that are quite significant, and though each has it's merits, each also has it's own flaws.
The first school of thought mentioned, Pragmatism is a school of thought that was contributed to philosophy by the United States of America and holds the belief that there is no such thing as absolute truth. Pragmatists generally think that truth is relative to it's situation and therefor constantly changing as new data emerges. By this way of thinking, the truth then changes accordingly to time, place, and purpose. The three most well known American pragmatists are C.S. Pierce, John Dewey, and William James, and they believed that truth varied from person to person depending on what he or she wanted to accomplish in life.
The second school of thought mentioned, continental philosophy is a general field associated with the philosophical views that originated in English speaking countries on the European continent. Continental philosophy generally rejects scientific ways and often science itself, choosing instead to look at concepts like context, time, space, ETC. in more of a broad spectrum. Within continental philosophy are sub-schools of philosophy known as existentialism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, deconstruction, and critical theory. Of these, the two most influential schools were existentialism and phenomenology. Both of these schools stem out of the nineteenth century and much of their theory can be traced back to Socrates and pre-socratic philosophy. Existentialism tends toward the thought that the world is absurd, irrational, and beyond comprehension, and that the most important fact of human existence is for the individual to choose how they are to live in this absurd universe. Phenomenology is a school that...
References: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – www.iep.utm.edu/con-meta/
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